Rob Mitchell The phrase "erroneous astronomical evidence" is true, but perhaps too charitable. Fritz Zwicky noticed the rotational structure of spiral galaxies in 1933. . Lin and Frank Shu's Density Wave theory in the 1960s pointed to a mechanism by which galactic structures remain stable. Vera Rubin described a similar rotational pattern from a different perspective in 1975 with her assistant Kent Ford, the effect which is known by their names. Finally the inferred existence of Dark Matter Haloes that add to the stable structure of galaxies and influence their rotation curves so that they behave more like rigid disks rather than ordinary orbital structures has been known since the 1990s. The film simply ignores these specific discoveries. It is difficult to believe the astronomers interviewed were unaware of astronomical theory with regard to galactic rotation curves over the last century. If they did, they are either incompetent or disingenuous, however the impression is more likely the result of selective editing by the film's producers.
Tuesday night’s debate, however, may be less of a victory than a swan song for Ham, whose next project, a life-size “replica” of Noah’s Ark , is currently teetering on the brink of collapse. To finance the more than $100-million project, Ham’s company Answers in Genesis recently began selling junk bonds , unrated high-risk investments with no secondary market. Unsurprisingly, the bonds aren’t selling nearly fast enough , and the project faces default as soon as this Thursday. Given that the rest of Ham’s creationist conglomerate is already flailing , such a collapse might signal the beginning of the end for Answers in Genesis. Should that happen, Ham will likely be ready to lay the blame on his despised enemy, “the atheist lobby”—though he’ll really have no one to blame but himself. Ham may be able to deny the validity of evolution, of natural selection, of carbon dating and fossil records and basic physics. But it won’t be so easy for him to swat away the looming financial ruin that, through his own arrogance and myopia, he’s brought upon himself.
Altruism – the willingness of some to sacrifice themselves for others – is widespread in social animals. As explained above, the next generation can only come from those who survive and reproduce. Some biologists have thought that this meant altruism could not evolve by the normal process of selection. Instead a process called "group selection" was proposed.   Group selection refers to the idea that alleles can become fixed or spread in a population because of the benefits they bestow on groups, regardless of the alleles' effect on the fitness of individuals within that group.